Cooling Water Treatment
Water is wide-spread used as a cooling agent in technical processes; in doing this manifold problems may occur:
- Deposits of minerals and lime scale
- ConCtamination by algae and bacteria
- Accumulation of mud and sand particles etc.
Basically a distinction can be drawn between the following cooling systems:
a) flow-through cooling systems
b) semi-open cooling systems – cooling happens via cooling tower
c) closed cooling systems (e.g. motorcar radiator)
Particularly in semi-open cooling systems frequently problems develop:
Since in the cooling tower only pure water is evaporated a continuous enrichment of the salts dissolved in water takes place and the solubility limit of the salts will be exceeded sooner or later; this results in deposits within the cooling system. Hence a part of the cooling water has to be removed (elutriated = desalinated) periodically, to preclude an overrun of the solubility limit of dissolved salts.
But the more water is elutriated the bigger is the water consumption in the system and operating costs of the cooling system may increase heavily. By addition of special hardness stabilization agents the elutriation rate can be reduced and water can be saved, but thereby the “densification” C in the cooling circuit increases.
C = Concentration of salts in cooling circuit water / Concentration of salts in make-up water
Z = Make-up water quantity
C = Densification
An increase oft he densification C results directly into a reduction of water demand.
Since constantly air is brought to the system via cooling tower, cooling water becomes very abrasive. For this reason dosing of a corrosion inhibitor is highly recommended.
And by introducing air (oxygen) into the cooling water circuit growth of algae, fungi and bacteria is promoted additionally – their deposits hinder heat transfer in the cooling unit and by that are reducing cooling capacity.
By means of a cooling water treatment at its best the following advantages can be realized:
- Enhancement of possible densification and hence significant water savings
- Prevention of scale and dirt deposits and hence best possible heat transfer and maximum cooling capacity
- Prohibition of microbiological deposits
- Corrosion protection and hence extension of facility life time.
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